The earliest suggestions that subsets of TRCs in rabbits and mice could be adrenergic came from histofluorescence studies.220–225 Some studies also suggested that there may be adrenergic fibers that surround the taste bud.226–229 In the mammalian system, the first physiological studies implicating a role of NE in the bud came with the demonstration that chloride currents were enhanced by its exogenous application.191 Subsequently, it was shown that some TRCs are adrenergic and that TRCs express both α- and β-adrenoceptors.189 In fact, virtually all adrenoceptors are expressed in the bud (α1A, α1B, α1D, α2A, 2B, 2C, β1, and β2) in a complex overlapping pattern that implies both presynaptic and postsynaptic distributions.230 Dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), the synthetic enzyme for NE, is expressed in rat and frog TRCs,230,231 but not in mice.190 Phenyl-n-methyl transferase is expressed in rat taste buds suggesting that epinephrine may also participate in taste bud cell-to-cell communication. Last 300 years. C. Beaton, As pleasingly prickly as a kitten’s tongue —Slogan for Gevrey-Chamertin wine, A fastidious taste is like a squeamish appetite; the one has its origin in some disease of the mind, as the other has in some ailment of the stomach —Robert Southey, Full of rich flavor as a piece torn off an old shirt —Raymond Chandler, His mouth felt as if it had been to a party without him —Peter DeVries, His mouth was tastelessly dry, as though he had been eating dust —Joseph Conrad, My mouth [from smoking a cigarette] tasted like a cross between charred sticks and spoiled eggs —Sue Grafton, My mouth was dry and tasty as a hen-coop floor —Harold Adams, My mouth tasted like an old penny —Robert B. Parker, My tongue felt like a slice of ham in my mouth, salty and pink —Jay Parini, (Melons … as) sweet to the tongue as gold is to the mind —Borden Deal, Tasted like it had been fried in tar —Larry McMurtry, Taste is the luxury of abeyant claims and occurs, like Wordsworth’s poetry, in a kind of tranquillity —Stanley Elkin, Taste like a cup of lukewarm consommé at a spinsterish tearoom —Raymond Chandler, on mystery writing, (The crap still in his mouth made everything) taste like feathers —William Mcllvanney, Taste like the Volga at low tide —Line from movie, Tastes like cool, wet sand under pearly seaside light —Slogan for Chateau Guiraud’s Chateau “G” wine, Tastes like the wrath to come —Irvin S. Cobb, Tastes rather like an old attic —J. In situ hybridization showed that Tas1R1 and Tas1R2 have different expression patterns in rat taste tissue: rTas1R1 is localized to geschmackstreifen (taste stripe) and fungiform papillae, and rTas1R2 is localized primarily to circumvallate and foliate papillae. Since the taste receptors are modified epithelial cells, this ability is not surprising. Taste receptors are proteins that recognize taste stimuli of various types, thereby functioning as the initial component in the process of sensing and discriminating ingested material.

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