The proposed law would outlaw covering one's face during a street demonstration (whether with a helmet, mask, or scarf), punishable by a €15,000 ($17,700) fine or imprisonment, and allow local police to establish blacklists of people not allowed to participate in street protests.  As in prior weeks, 80,000 security officials had been mobilized, including 5,000 in Paris. The chain supermarkets, in particular, reported that traffic had been down significantly, estimating the overall loss at around €600 million ($708,000,000) as of 13 December. Written by Many shops were boarded up in anticipation of violence, with The Louvre, Eiffel Tower and the Paris Opera also closed. Civil unrest marred the Festival of Lights in both Lyon and Saint-Étienne. The yellow jacket movement is not associated with a specific political party or trade union and has spread largely by social media.
Reduces the cost and disruption caused by accidents and incidents.
 Several oil depots had been blocked in Wallonia as of 16 November 2018, though protesters' attempts to block the Russian Lukoil depot in Brussels were quickly thwarted by police. , A protest called "Act 3 – Macron Quits [fr]" was organised for 1 December.
, As in week IX, police estimated that 84,000 people demonstrated across France, including a peak of 10,000 in Toulouse for a short period, 7,000 in Paris (where protesters demonstrated on the Left Bank for the first time), 4,000 in Bordeaux, and 2,500 in both Marseille and Angers. The protesters involved were throwing stones, flares and other objects at police, resulting in around 100 arrests. Others are related primarily by the use of the readily-available symbol. Looking for some great streaming picks? Look for yellow jackets flying in a straight line because they usually fly directly from their nests to a food source and back again. Jean-Yves Camus, an expert on French political extremism, identified an "inherent weakness of a movement that lets the people speak" as being that anyone (whether far left, far right, radical Islamist or anti-Zionist) can say whatever they want in the street with little concern for propriety or legality. Find out more about health and safety incident management. Doing so allows the creature to protect itself or the colony. , In the wake of the 2018 Strasbourg attack, the government asked protesters to stay off the streets. With a yellow and black head and a striped abdomen, yellow jackets resemble bees in color, size and sting, but these buggers are more vibrant in color, with thinner, more defined waists and hairless hind legs. , In the 1950s, diesel engines were used only in heavy equipment so, to help sell off the surpluses in French refineries, the state created a favorable tax regime to encourage motorists and manufacturers to use diesel. Reporting on the tool is designed to be as user friendly as possible – giving you an ‘at a glance’ overview of health, safety and quality across your projects.  A motorist was killed on 21 December when his car hit a truck that was stopped at a blockade in Perpignan, the tenth fatality overall.  The yellow vest was an accessible symbol for the protests, as all French drivers had been required to have one in their vehicles since 2008. 11 people, including 3 yellow vests, were killed in traffic accidents caused by yellow vests roadblocks in Belgium and France, 2 yellow vests, both aged over 50, died during the demonstrations due to heart problems unrelated to the protests, 1 woman died of a surgical shock at the hospital after she had been injured in the margins of a demonstration. , Finkielkraut, interviewed by BFM-TV, was especially concerned with the viral nature of what he called a new type of "anti-racist" anti-Semitism, which he says consists of comparing the Israeli colonization of Palestine with Nazism. Instead, they breathe through openings in the body that lead to the internal organs and cells.  Parallel to this petition, two men from the same Department launched a Facebook event for 17 November to "block all roads" and thus protest against an increase in fuel prices they considered excessive, stating that this increase was the result of the tax increase.  On 19 November a BFMTV crew was forced to abandon a protest in the Bordeaux region because they were targeted by protesters who not only hurled insults but also threw stones and beer cans at them. , The government decided in 2017 to cut the speed limit on country roads from 1 July 2018 from 90 to 80 km/h (50 mph) with the aim to save 200 lives each year, after research found that "excessive or unsuitable" speed was involved in a third (32 percent) of fatal road accidents.  Two labor unions, CGT and FO who had initially called on truckers to start striking on 9 December, retracted their call on 7 December, after having consulted the government and their membership. Despite these incidents, the media reported that demonstrations "remained relatively calm compared to previous weekends". Dozens of people have been similarly injured during the course of the yellow vests protests.  The CRS (riot police) resorted to tear gas in most major cities.  An opinion poll conducted after 1 December events found that 73 percent of French people supported the gilets jaunes and that 85 percent were opposed to the violence in Paris.
 In 2015, two out of every three cars purchased consumed diesel fuel. , Late in June 2017, Macron's Minister of Justice, François Bayrou, came under pressure to resign, due to the ongoing investigation into the financial arrangements of the political party (MoDem) he leads. Vespula spp. © Copyright Building Research Establishment Ltd 2020.  Paris-based journalist John Lichfield said that the 1968 events had a joyous side to them, largely absent from the yellow vest movement, but that both movements were similar in that they lacked recognized leaders, much as the banlieues riots of 2005 had.
 The movement was initially motivated by rising fuel prices and a high cost of living; it claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. By 21 November casualties had climbed to 585 civilians and 115 police injured, with 16 civilians and 3 police severely wounded.  Similar operations were conducted at the Spanish, Italian, German, and Belgian borders.  An opinion poll published by the Elabe Institute showed that in the presidential election in May 2017, 36% of the participants voted for far-right candidate Marine Le Pen and 28% for far-left candidate Jean-Luc Melenchon in the 2017 presidential elections.  More recently, several politicians included the idea in their 2017 presidential platforms. ", "Qui est François Boulo, l'avocat porte-parole des Gilets jaunes à Rouen", "Gilets jaunes – Le ministre de l'Intérieur indique que le pics de manifestants s'est élevé à 282710 manifestants, atteint vers 17 heures", "Qui sont les 11 morts du mouvement des gilets jaunes mentionnés par Emmanuel Macron? Police stepped in to protect him, and Macron later said that this behaviour was an "absolute negation" of what made France great and would not be tolerated. , More than 100 cars were burned in Paris during the protest on 1 December, and the Arc de Triomphe was vandalised. Paving stones had been tarred over to eliminate the risk of their being used as projectiles.  Macron said the goal of the administration's economic reform program is to increase France's competitiveness in the global economy, and says that the fuel tax is intended to discourage fossil-fuel use. , In his 10 December speech to the French people in response to the movement, Macron pledged a €100 per month increase in the minimum wage in 2019, the exclusion of charges and taxes on overtime hours in 2019, and on any 2018 end-of-year bonuses paid to employees. , As of 22 December 2018, 10 fatalities had been linked to the protests in France. La France et le diesel, une histoire d'amour contrariée", "Diesel: les raisons d'une " exception culturelle " française", "Prix des carburants : l'essence à son plus bas de 2018, le diesel poursuit aussi sa baisse", "Prix à la pompe: la part du brut, la part des taxes", "Lettre ouverte au Premier Ministre Edouard PHILIPPE", "Emmanuel Macron promet des aides pour le chauffage et le carburant", "Gilets Jaunes: Is the energy transition possible while still reducing inequality?  The world market purchase price of petrol for distributors increased by 28 percent over the previous year; for diesel, by 35 percent.  Conflict arose in Bordeaux, Toulouse, Marseille, Lyon and the capital. Yellowjacket or yellow jacket is the common name in North America for predatory social wasps of the genera Vespula and Dolichovespula.  , A significant number of misleading images and information have been circulated on social media concerning the protests.  Others have drawn parallels to popular revolts in late-medieval Europe like the Jacquerie, to Poujadism, to the Brownshirts, and to the French Revolution. Over a hundred demonstrators were taken into custody after they attempted to enter Avenue Champs-Elysees by force. A stinging insect like a yellow jacket uses its stings so that it can suppress its prey including spiders and other insects. Find out more about the health and safety app. ", "France's Macron hunts for way out of 'yellow vest' crisis", "Macron Fights on Two Fronts as French, German Risks Collide", "France's Yellow Vest Protesters Want to Fight Climate Change", "Priscillia Ludosky, la force tranquille des "gilets jaunes, "Chi sono i 'gilet gialli', la versione francese dei Forcone", "Never before have I seen blind anger like this on the streets of Paris", "Barricades in Paris make Brexit bankers think again", "Les Français, les gilets jaunes et les mesures annoncées par Edouard Philippe", "Sur un axe de Mélenchon à Le Pen, où se situent les revendications des 'gilets jaunes'? Drill into the detail behind the Dashboard to better understand specific concerns and issues. Compare projects, activities and the performance of your supply chain.  Cancellations have risen as visitors are scared off from traveling to France for safety and security concerns, while corporate trips have also sought to avoid Paris, because the protests have turned the city into a liability. Yellow jackets differ from other wasps in having their wings folded longitudinally when at rest. , 1 December riots in Paris were widely acknowledged to have been the most violent since May 1968.
 Étienne Chouard, a French economics and law teacher, and a retired dentist named Yvan Bachaud, who named the RIC, were among the earliest proponents of such referenda. , Protesters blocked border traffic to Switzerland at Cluse-et-Mijoux.
, One of the goals of the yellow jackets is to obtain the right to direct initiative, in other words the right to petition the government at any time to propose or repeal a law, to amend the constitution or remove a public official from office. , For the first time after the Coronavirus lockdown, protesters returned to the streets of which more than 250 were arrested by the police, some of the protesters wore black clothes and carried the flag of an anti-fascist movement, suggesting the presence of radical demonstrators dubbed "black blocs" often blamed for violence at street marches in France.
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